Cardiology | Fellowships | Research Training

Research Training

All fellows are expected to complete a research project that results in a publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Fellows present abstracts of their work at major cardiology meetings. Additional focused clinical or basic research experience is available with research mentors within the department and in other departments at the Washington University School of Medicine. Previous fellows have been successful at obtaining grant supported research experience past the 3 years of fellowship in order to become independent investigators. Extensive research facilities and opportunities are available to fellows at Washington University. A fellowship research oversight committee is involved early in training to help fellows select research mentors.

Recent Pediatric Cardiology Fellow Abstracts Presented at Meetings

  • Lehmann GC, Patel MD, Levy PT, Choudhry S, Sekarski TJ, Hamvas A, Singh GK. Left Ventricular Mechanics in Preterm Infants with Chronic Lung Disease. Abstract Number 17-A-533-ASE. Poster Presentation. American Society of Echocardiography, June 4-6, 2017.
  • Lehmann, GC, Patel MD, Levy PT, Choudhry S, Sekarski TJ, Hamvas A, Singh GK. Maturational Changes in Left Ventricular Function in Preterm Neonates: Assessment of LV Rotational Mechanics from 32 weeks Post-Menstrual Age to One Year. Abstract and Poster Presentation. Pediatric Academic Society 2017 Meeting, May 6-9, 2017.
  • Rockefeller T, Peek M, Balzer D, Murphy J, Nicolas R, Shahanavaz S. Efficacy of Venoplasty with and without Stenting in the Treatment of Systemic Venous Obstruction in Young Children. (Pediatric and Adult Interventional Cardiac Symposium, Sep 2015, Las Vegas, NV)
  • Nguyen HH, Shahanavaz S, Van Hare GF, Balzer DT, Nicolas R, Silva JN. Electrophysiologic substrate alterations following Melody valve implantation. Oral presentation at Heart Rhythm Scientific Sessions. San Francisco, CA. May 2016.
  • Abuchaibe EC, Levy PT, Sekarski TJ, Patel M, Hamvas A, Singh GK. Maturational Patterns of Ventricular Septal Deformation in Preterm Infants in the First Month of Life. 1261-222-ACC (Poster Presentation ACC 2016).
  • Abuchaibe EC, Levy PT, Sekarski TJ, Patel M, Hamvas A, Singh GK. Maturational Patterns of Ventricular Septal Deformation in Preterm and Term Infants: Ventricular Septal Remodeling in the First Year of Life. 16-A-369-ASE (Poster Presentation ASE 2016).
  • Mowers KL, Rockefeller T, Nicholas R, Balzer DT, Shahanavaz S. Safety of Post-Operative Catheterization Interventions at the Site of Surgery: An application of the CRISP Scoring System. (Oral presentation SCAI 2016)
  • Choudhry S, Balzer D, Murphy J, Nicolas R, Shahanavaz S. Percutaneous carotid arterial access in infants < 3 months of age. (PICS AICS 2014 - poster presentation).
  • Cammock C, Castleberry C, Choudhry S, Simpson K, Canter C. Early neurologic outcomes after pediatric heart transplantation. (ISHLT 2016 – oral presentation).
  • Choudhry S, Cunningham T, Levy PT, Nguyen H, Wallendorf M, Singh GK, Johnson M. Normative Left Ventricular M-mode Echocardiographic Values in Preterm Infants. (ASE 2016 - poster presentation).
  • Choudhry S, Cunningham T, Wallendorf M, Levy PT, Singh GK, Hackett B, Johnson M. Left ventricular hypertrophy in premature infants: Risk factors and outcome. (ASE 2016 – poster presentation).
  • Patel MD, Choudry S, Levy PT, Lehmann GC, Sekarski TJ, Holland MR, Hamvas A, Singh GK. Pulmonary Vascular Disease persists in asymptomatic Preterm-born Infants beyond Infancy: Assessment by Pulmonary Artery Acceleration Time. (ASE 2016 – poster presentation).
  • Patel MD, Levy PT, Choudry S, Holland MR, Sekarski TJ, Hamvas A, Singh GK. Left Ventricular Function in Preterm Neonates: Assessment of LV Rotational Mechanics from 32 weeks Post-Menstrual Age to One Year. (ASE 2016 - poster presentation).
  • Patel MD, Choudhry S, Levy PT, Sekarski TJ, Hamvas A, Singh GK. Early predictive markers of right ventricular – pulmonary vascular dysfunction in preterm infants with chronic lung disease. (9th International Conference on Neonatal and Childhood Pulmonary Vascular Disease, San Francisco, March 2016 – poster presentation).
  • Choudhry S, Patel MD, Levy PT, Lehmann GC, Sekarski TJ, Holland MR, Hamvas A, Singh GK. Pulmonary vascular disease persists in asymptomatic preterm-born infants beyond infancy: Assessment by pulmonary artery acceleration time. (Received best abstract award in Clinical Science, 9th International Conference on Neonatal and Childhood Pulmonary Vascular Disease, San Francisco, March 2016).
  • Patel MD, Levy PT, Sekarski TJ, Holland MR, Hamvas A, Singh GK. Pulmonary Artery Acceleration Time is an Early Marker of Abnormal Pulmonary Hemodynamics in Preterm Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. 15-A-495-ASE (Poster presentation ASE 2015)
  • Patel MD, Myers C, Anwar S. 2D Strain Is A More Precise Measure Of LV Function Than Ejection Fraction Or Fractional Shortening In Pediatric Patients. 15-A-495-ASE (Poster presentation ASE 2015)
  • Patel MD, Levy PT, Sekarski TJ, Holland MR, Hamvas A, Singh GK. Pulmonary artery acceleration time: A non-invasive early marker of abnormal pulmonary hemodynamics in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. E-PAS2015 (Poster presentation PAS 2015)
  • Patel MD, Levy PT, Sekarski TJ, Holland MR, Hamvas A, Singh GK. Echocardiographic assessment of pulmonary hemodynamics by pulmonary artery acceleration time: Feasibility and Reproducibility in preterm infants. E-PAS2015 (Poster presentation PAS 2015)
  • Nguyen HH, Van Hare GF, Rudokas M, Bowman T, Silva JN. SPEAR Trial: Smartphone Pediatric ElectrocARdiogram. Oral presentation at Heart Rhythm Scientific Sessions. San Francisco, CA. May 2014.
  • Nguyen HH, Balzer DT, Murphy JJ, Nicolas R, Shahanavaz S. Radiation exposure of 3D rotational angiography during transcatheter Melody valve implantation in the pediatric cardiac catheterization laboratory. Oral presentation at Pediatric and Adult Interventional Cardiac Symposium. Chicago, IL. June 2014.
  • Patel MD, Balzer DT, Murphy J, Nicolas R, Shahanavaz S. Factors Influencing the Patency of a Percutaneously Created Fontan Fenestration. (Poster Presentation, PICS, Chicago, IL., June 2014)
  • Hoganson DM, Tucker M, Boston US, Manning PB, Balzer DT, Eghtesady P. Anatomic and Hemodynamic Parameters That Impact Intended Longevity of the Modified Blalock-Taussig Shunt. Can the BT Shunt Design Be Changed to Improve Hemodynamics? Presented at American Association for Thoracic Surgery Mtg., 4/26 – 4/30/14
  • Nguyen HH, Jay PY. A single misstep in cardiac development explains the co-occurrence of tetralogy of Fallot and complete atrioventricular septal defect in Down syndrome. Oral presentation at Midwest Pediatric Cardiology Conference Scientific Sessions (Chicago, IL. September 2013) and Missouri Chapter of ACC Update in Cardiovascular Diseases Conference (St. Louis, MO. October 2013).
  • Birnbaum BF, Simpson KE, Canter CE. Pediatric Heart Failure Patients Can Be Safely Discharged on Home Inotropic Medications with A Substantial Minority Able to Discontinue Inotropic Medications. Abstract oral presentation. American Heart Association 2013 Scientific Sessions, Dallas, TX. Nov 2013.
  • Groh G, Levy P, Holland M, Murphy J, Sekarski T, Singh GK. Doppler echocardiography inaccurately estimates right ventricular pressure in children with elevated right heart pressure. ACC 2013 Annual Scientific Session, San Francisco, CA. March 2013
  • Groh G, Johnson MC, Canter CE, Pahl E, Hruz P, Jay PY. Secondary insulin resistance defines a subset of pediatric heart failure patients. ACC 2013 Annual Scientific Sessions, San Francisco, CA. March 2013.
  • Sanchez Mejia AA, Levy P, Sekarski T, Holland R, Singh GK. Cardiac dysfunction is associated with insulin resistance in obese adolescents. ACC 2013 Annual Scientific Sessions, San Francisco, CA. March 2013.
  • Johnikin MJ, Madani M, McGregor MC, Toole PA, Kulikowska AB, Ameduri R, Gumbiner CH, Simon CO, Ward KE, Asante–Korang A , Kimberling MT, Zheng J, Schechtman K, Canter CE. Outcomes in Pediatric Heart Transplantation in the Second Decade of Survival. Poster Presentation. International Heart and Lung Transplantation Annual Meeting, Prague, Czech Republic. April 2012.
  • Johnikin MJ, Euteneur JC, Pilgram TK, DeBaun MR, Johnson MC. Coronary Artery Dilation in Children with Sickle Cell Disease. Fellow In Training Abstract Oral Presentation - Third Place. Missouri/Kansas American College of Cardiology Annual Update in Cardiovascular Disease, Kansas City, MO, Oct 2011
  • Broderick PT, Urban Z, Pilgram TK, Johnson MC. Echocardiographic findings in Williams Syndrome: Vessel Diameter Versus Peak Systolic Velocity. American Academy of Pediatrics Annual Meeting-Section on Cardiology, Boston, Oct 2011.
  • Johnikin MJ, Euteneur JC, Pilgram TK, DeBaun MR, Johnson MC. Coronary Artery Dilation In Children With Sickle Cell Disease. American Academy of Pediatrics Annual Meeting-Section on Cardiology, Boston, Oct 2011.
  • Sparks, J,Vascular transcatheter interventions in the pediatric lung transplant population at St. Louis Children’s Hospital. Presented at The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions in Baltimore, MD. May 2011.
  • Goldstein BS, Holland MR, Klein S, Singh GK. Alterations in Cardiac Structure and Function in Overweight Adolescents: Does “Obesity Cardiomyopathy” Evolve in Childhood? American College of Cardiology, New Orleans, April 2011.
  • Simpson KE, Cibulka N, Lee CK, Huddleston CH, Canter CE. Failed fontan heart transplant candidates with preserved versus impaired ventricular ejection: 2 distinct patient populations. Presented at International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation in San Diego, CA. April 2011.
  • Diaz F, Balzer D, Foerster S, Murphy J. Non-conventional approaches to access intracardiac chambers in patients after surgery for complex congenital heart disease. Presented at the Pediatric and Adult Interventional Cardiac Symposium (PICS), in Chicago, IL, July 2010.
  • Toib A, Zhang H, Nichols CG; (2010); Cardiac specific ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) overexpression results in embryonic lethality; Accepted to The Mid West Society for Pediatric Research meeting, Iowa City , IA, USA. Submitted to the AHA conference, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Vashist, S. MRI Characteristics of Acute Myocarditis in Pediatric Patients: Patterns and Predictors of Outcomes. American College of Cardiology, March 2009, Orlando.
  • McBride ME, Fehr JJ, Murray DJ. Pediatric Resident Skill Survey: Designing a Simulation-based Curriculum for Pediatric Acute Care. Presented at International Meeting on Simulation in Healthcare, Lake Buena Vista, FL. Jan 2009.
  • Muyskens S, Foerster S, Balzer D. Efficacy and Safety of Intracardiac Echocardiography for the Transcatheter Closure of Atrial Septal Defects in Children. Oral presentation, Pediatric Interventional Cardiac Symposium (PICS). Las Vegas, Nevada. July 2008. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, 2008; 71 (7): S8-9.
  • McBride ME, Trehan I, Boschert TA, Moorhead SL, Gandhi SK, Huddleston CB, Ewald GA, Canter CE. Outcomes of Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients Transitioned to Adult Transplant Centers. Presented at the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation in Boston, MA. March 2008.
  • Muyskens S, Holt T, Balzer D, Woodard P, Ludomirsky A, Singh G. RV to PA Homograft Patency: Catheter, Echo, and CT Angiogram Correlative Study. Oral Presentation, Washington University Early Research Symposium. St. Louis, Missouri. November 2007.
  • Muyskens S, Nicolas R, Foerster S, Balzer D. Endovascular stent placement for right ventricle to pulmonary artery stenosis in the Sano modified Norwood. Oral presentation, Midwest Pediatric Cardiology Society Meeting. St. Louis, Missouri. September 2007.
  • Muyskens S, Nicolas R, Foerster S, Balzer D. RV to PA conduit stenosis in the Sano modified Norwood: An institutional experience with endovascular stenting. Oral presentation, Pediatric Interventional Cardiac Symposium (PICS). Las Vegas, Nevada. July, 2007. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, 2007; 70 (1): S2.
  • Lorch SM, Cupps BP, Hicks D, Woodard PK, Holland MR, Pasque MK, Ludomirsky A, Singh GK. Accuracy of Myocardial Strain Measurements in Pediatric Hearts by 2D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography: A Validation Study with Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Presented at ASE June 2007, Seattle, WA.
  • Lorch SM, Singh GK, Ludomirsky A. Are there Maturational Alterations in Myocardial Strain and Strain Rate in Children: A Vector Velocity Imaging Study? Presented at ASE June 2007, Seattle, WA.
  • Holt DB, Liapis H, Phelan DR, Gandhi SK, Huddleston CB, Canter CE. Complement Fragment C4d and C3d Deposition Does Not Correlate With Rejection in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients With a Positive Crossmatch. Oral Presentation at the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions, April 25-28, 2007, San Francisco, CA.
  • Jone Liao P, Johnson MC, Sharkey AM. Tricuspid E/E’: A Novel Tool for Evaluation of Pediatric Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. – Oral presentation in American Heart Association Scientific Sessions in Chicago November, 2006.
  • Jone Liao P, Singh G, Johnson MC, Sharkey AM, Ludomirsky A. Does Myocardial Strain and Strain Rate in Pediatric Cardiac Patients on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Predict Outcome? A Velocity Vector Imaging Study. – Oral presentation in American Heart Association Scientific Sessions in Chicago November, 2006.
  • Kulikowska A, Boslaugh S, Huddleston C, Gandhi S, Canter C. Infectious, Malignant and Autoimmune Complications in Long Term Followup of Infant and Older Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients. Presented at WTC in Boston in July 2006.
  • Jone Liao P, Coleman RD, Nicolas RT, Johnson MC, Sharkey AM. Myocardial Injury and Diastolic Dysfunction Following Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot in Pediatric patients. – Abstract poster presentation in American Society of Echocardiography Meeting in Baltimore June, 2006.
  • Singh GK, Gibson A, Kulikowska A, Wallace KD, Hoffman JJ, Ludomirsky A, Miller JG, Holland MR. High-frequency (50MHz) Ultrasonic Integrated Backscatter Imaging Defines Myocardial Architecture in Fetal Hearts. Presented at ASE in May 2006.
  • Holt DB, Moller JH, Larson S, Johnson MC. Primary Pulmonary Vein Stenosis in Children: Multi-Institutional Data of Thirty-One Patients. Abstract, oral presentation: 2005 Scientific Sessions of the American Heart Association. in Dallas, November 13-16, 2005.
  • Holt DB, Foerster SR, Nicolas RT, Balzer DT. Tissue Plasminogen Activator and Heparin Protocol for Arterial Thrombolysis in Pediatric Patients Following Cardiac Catheterization. Abstract, poster presentation: The Fourth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery. Buenos Aires, September 18-22, 2005.
  • Holt DB, Lublin DM, Phelan DR, Huddleston CB, Saffitz JE, Canter C. Rejection in Presensitized Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients with a Positive Donor Crossmatch Utilizing Perioperative Plasmapheresis and Cytolytic Therapy. Abstract, oral presentation: The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation 25th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions in Philadelphia April 5-9, 2005.

Recent Pediatric Cardiology Fellow Publications

  • Nguyen HH, Sheybani E, Manning P, Herman T, Anwar S. Left aortic arch, right descending aorta, and right patent ductus arteriosus: precise depiction of a rare vascular ring with cardiac computed tomography. Circulation. 2015 Apr 14;131(15):e404-5.
  • Nguyen HH, Jay PY. A single misstep in cardiac development explains the co-occurrence of tetralogy of fallot and complete atrioventricular septal defect in down syndrome. J Pediatr 2014.
  • Simpson KE, Canter CE. Can adult heart failure regimens be applied to children: what works and what does not? Curr Opin Cardiol. 2012 Mar;27(2):98-107.
  • Simpson KE, Cibulka N, Lee CK, Huddleston CH, Canter CE. Failed Fontan heart transplant candidates with preserved vs impaired ventricular ejection: 2 distinct patient populations. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2012 Feb 28. Epub ahead of print.
  • McBride ME, Waldrop WB, Fehr JJ, Boulet JR, Murray DJ. Simulation in pediatrics: the reliability and validity of a multiscenario assessment. Pediatrics. 2011 Aug;128(2):335-43
  • Goldstein BS, Sweet SC, Mao J, Huddleston CB, Grady RM. Lung Transplantation in Children With Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: An 18-Year Experience Journal of Heart Lung Transplant, May 2011.
  • McBride ME, Foushee MT, Brown RN, Ewald GA, Canter CE. Outcomes of Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients Transitioned to Adult Care: An Exploratory Study. J Heart Lung Transplant, Nov 2010 29(11):1309-10.
  • Toib A, Grange DK, Kozel BA, Ewald GA, White FV, Canter CE. Distinct clinical and histopathological presentations of Danon cardiomyopathy in young women. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 55 4 408-410.
  • McBride ME, Huddleston CB, Balzer DT, Goel D, Gazit AZ. Hypoplastic Left Heart Association With Scimitar Syndrome. Pediatr Cardiol 2009;30:1037.
  • Vashist S, Singh G. Acute Myocarditis in Children: Current Concepts and Management. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med, Oct 2009 (5):383-91.
  • Muyskens S, Lasala J, Balzer D. Percutaneous Closure of a Complex Post-Traumatic Muscular Ventricular Septal Defect. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, 2008.
  • Muyskens S, Nicolas R, Foerster S, Balzer D. Endovascular stent placement for right ventricle to pulmonary artery stenosis in the Sano modified Norwood. Congenital Heart Disease, 2008; 3 (3): 185-90.
  • Gazit A, Gandhi, S. Pediatric primary cardiac tumors: diagnosis and treatment. Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine 2007.
  • Gazit A, Singh GK, Shumway J, Johnson MC, Ludomirsky A. Fetal cardiac rhabdomyoma: A sheep or a wolf? J Mat-Fet Med 2007;20: 343-8.
  • Gazit A, Avari JN, Balzer DT, Rhee EK. Electrocardiographic Diagnosis of Myocardial Ischemia in Children: is a diagnostic ECG always diagnostic? Pediatrics 2007.
  • Holt DB, Moller JH, Larson S, Johnson MC. Primary pulmonary vein stenosis. Am J Cardiol. 2007; 99:568-572.
  • Holt DB, Lublin DM, Phelan DR, Boslaugh SE, Gandhi SK, Huddleston CB, Saffitz JE, Canter CE. Mortality and Morbidity in Presensitized Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients with a Positive Donor Crossmatch Utilizing Perioperative Plasmapheresis and Cytolytic Therapy. The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 2007.
  • Gandhi SK, Canter CE, Kulikowska A, Huddleston CB. Infant Heart Transplantation Ten Years Later – Where Are They Now–The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 2007;83: 169-172.
  • Lorch SM, Sharkey AM. Myocardial velocity, strain and strain rate abnormalities in health obese children. J Cardiometabolic Syndrome 2007; 2;1:30-34.
  • Grange DK, Lorch SM, Cole PL, Singh GK. “Cantu Syndrome in a Woman and Her Two Daughters: Further Confirmation of Autosomal Dominant Inheritance and Review of the Cardiac Manifestations.” American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 140A:1673-1680, 2006.
  • Toib A, Robinson B. Unusual wheezing in a 4 months old baby: A case description of unusual presentation of ALCAPA. Contemporary Pediatrics 2006; 23 9 26-40.
  • Shaoul R, Gazit A, Weller B, Berman S, Jaffe M. Neurological manifestations of an acute abdomen in children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2005; Sep;21(9):594-7.
  • Gazit A, Charpie JR, Dekeon MK, Goldberg CS, Mosca RS, Bove EL, Kulik TJ. Serial blood lactate levels predict early outcome after neonatal repair or palliation for congenital heart disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2000 Jul;120(1)73-80. In the PedsCCM Evidence-based journal club, March 6, 2005.
  • Holt DB, Singh GK, Rhee EK, Billadello J, Ludomirsky A. Prinzmetal Angina in an Adolescent: Adjunctive Role of Tissue Synchronization Imaging. Circulation 2005; 112:e91-e92.
  • Lin ND, Landt ML, Trinkaus KM, Balzer DT, Kort HW, Canter CE. The relationship of age, severity of illness, and hemodynamics with brain natriuretic peptide levels in pediatric heart disease. Am J Cardiol, 2005;96: 847-50.
  • Nicolas R, Huddleston C, Hills C, Moller JH, Johnson MC. Early outcome after glen shunt and Fontan palliation and the impact of operation during viral respiratory season: analysis of a 19 year multi-institutional experience. Ann Thorac Surg 2005; 79:613-7.
  • Farra H, Kort HW. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome and valvar pulmonary stenosis: presentation and management. Pediatric Cardiology. 2004.
  • McComber DE, Ibrahim JE, Lublin D, Ong C, Huddleston CB, Mendeloff EN, Canter CE. Non-ischemic left ventricular dysfunction (NILVD) after pediatric cardiac transplantation: treatment with plasmapheresis and OKT3. J Heart Lung Transplant 2004; 23: 552-7.
  • Tsirka AE, Trinkaus K, Chen SC, Lipshultz SE, Towbin JA, Colan SD, Exil V, Strauss AW, Canter CE. Improved outcomes of pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy with utilization of heart transplantation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44: 391-397.
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